In Martinez, the unanimous California Supreme Court affirmed the rulings of the lower courts by rejecting an attempt by agricultural workers to collect unpaid wages from food distributors who bought produce from that farm. In doing so, the court reviewed the history and jurisdiction of the Industrial Welfare Commission (IWC) and its work orders from 1916 to the present. The Court found that a civil action for unpaid wages authorized by Labor Code section 1194 was properly directed only to employers, and rejected attempts to expand the definition of "employ" as historically used by the IWC. For more Martinez case history, see the Employment-Compensation & Benefits update page.