Yesterday in Bartlow v. Costigan, a unanimous Illinois Supreme Court took a pass, for the most part, on deciding constitutional challenges to provisions of the Employee Classification Act which were amended by the legislature while the appeal was pending. The Court rejected a void-for-vagueness challenge to the section of the statute which was unchanged. Our detailed summary of the facts and underlying court decisions in Bartlow is here. Our report on the oral argument is here. Watch a video of the argument here.
The state legislature concluded that construction contractors were evading various protections extended to workers under the state labor laws, including minimum wage, overtime, workers’ comp and unemployment insurance, by improperly classifying their employees as independent contractors. In 2008, the Department of Labor received a complaint that the plaintiff was misclassifying employees as independent contractors. The Department sent the plaintiffs a notice of investigation and request for documents. The plaintiff provided several hundred documents, and in early 2010, the Department issued a "preliminary determination" that ten individuals had been misclassified. The Department calculated a potential penalty of nearly $1.7 million.
Only a few weeks later, the Department sent the plaintiff a notice of a second investigation, requesting more information. The plaintiff responded by filing suit, challenging the constitutionality of the Act (due process, special legislation, equal protection and bill of attainder) and seeking declaratory and injunctive relief. The circuit court denied plaintiff’s request for a temporary restraining order, but on interlocutory appeal, the Appellate Court reversed. On remand, the circuit court entered an order granting defendants’ motion for summary judgment, rejecting each of the plaintiffs’ constitutional challenges. The Appellate Court affirmed.
In an opinion by Justice Kilbride, a unanimous Supreme Court vacated in part and affirmed in part. The statute had been substantively amended while the appeal was pending, the Court noted. The Department was now required to provide notice and conduct formal administrative hearings within the meaning of the Administrative Review Law – it was the lack of such procedures that formed the core of plaintiff’s constitutional challenge. Following oral argument, the court directed the parties to file supplemental briefing on whether the amended statute applied to their case. The plaintiffs argued that it did not, but the Court disagreed. The case had not proceeded to any final determination of a violation of the Act, and no penalties had been assessed, the Court pointed out. Therefore, the Department’s ability to enforce the Act depended on following the procedural steps set out in the Act. Since the new, amended statute applied to plaintiffs’ case, the court held that the bulk of plaintiffs’ constitutional challenges were moot. Because the Court concluded that it was unable to pass one way or the other on the plaintiffs’ constitutional challenges to the superseded parts of the Act, the court vacated that portion of the Appellate Court’s opinion.
But Section 10, which set forth the statutory exemptions, had not been significantly amended. Therefore, plaintiffs’ challenge to Section 10 was not moot. Section 10(b) sets forth factual criteria which, if a particular individual qualifies, exempt that individual from the Act. In section 10(c), the Act deems "legitimate" and exempt from the Act any sole proprietorship or partnership satisfying certain criteria. The court held that the provisions of Section 10 "provide[d] a person of ordinary intelligence a reasonable opportunity to understand what conduct the Act prohibits," and therefore rejected the plaintiffs’ void-for-vagueness challenge. In rejecting the plaintiffs’ constitutional challenge, the Court noted that the plaintiffs’ strenuous claims that their subcontractors satisfied the elements of Section 10 implicitly amounted to a concession that plaintiffs understood what Section 10 meant. The Court held that plaintiffs’ remaining constitutional claims were forfeited for failure to adequately brief them before the Court.