On June 12, 2014, the Florida Supreme Court decided two cases that involved whether municipal ordinances imposing penalties for red light violations detected by devices using cameras were invalid because they were preempted by state law. See Mason v. City of Aventura, No. SC12-644; City of Orlando v. Udowychenko, No. SC12-1471. At issue in the cases was the operation of ordinances prior to July 1, 2010, the effective date of the Mark Wandall Traffic Safety Act, which authorized the use of the red light traffic infraction detectors by local governments and the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.

In both cases, plaintiffs challenged the validity of the municipal ordinances in order to set aside fines imposed per the ordinances, arguing that section 316.008(1)(w), Florida Statutes (2008), which specifically grants “local authorities [authority for] regulating, restricting, or monitoring traffic by security devices or personnel on public streets and highways.” In City of Aventura v. Mason, 89 So. 3d 233 (Fla. 3d DCA 2011), the Third District held that Aventura’s ordinance was a valid exercise of municipal power under section 316.008(1)(w). In City of Orlando v. Udowychenko, 98 So. 3d 589 (Fla. 5th DCA 2012), the Fifth District held that Orlando’s ordinance was invalid because it was expressly and impliedly preempted by state law. The Fifth District ruled that the imposition of penalties for running a red light other than those specifically provided for by state statute does not fall under section 316.008(1)(w)’s authority. The Fifth District certified conflict with the Third District’s decision.

The Court explained that while a municipality is given broad authority to enact ordinances, such ordinances must yield to state statutes. Preemption of local ordinances by state law may be accomplished by either express or implied preemption. Chapter 316, Florida Statutes (2008), regulates traffic throughout the state and contains two broad preemption provisions. Section 316.002 provides, “It is unlawful for any local authority to pass or to attempt to enforce any ordinance in conflict with the provisions of this chapter.” Section 316.007 provides, “No local authority shall enact or enforce any ordinance on a matter covered by this chapter unless expressly authorized.”

Section 316.075 contains rules governing the conduct of drivers and pedestrians relating to traffic control signal devices. One rule is that “vehicular traffic facing a steady red signal shall stop before entering . . . .” Any violation of the rules contained in section 316.075 “is a non-criminal traffic infraction, punishable pursuant to Chapter 318.” Chapter 318, Florida Statutes (2008), sets forth the rules governing the handling of traffic infractions, including the issue of penalties. Chapter 318 also contains a preemption provision regarding fines which states, “Notwithstanding any general or special law, or municipal or county ordinance, additional fees, fines, surcharges, or costs other than the court costs and surcharges assessed under s. 318.18(11)(13) and (18) may not be added to the civil traffic penalties assessed in this Chapter.”

Each of the ordinances at issue in the underlying cases handles red light violations in an entirely different manner than the system established under Chapters 316 and 318. Chapter 316 provides that local ordinances on “a matter covered by” the chapter are preempted, unless an ordinance is “expressly authorized” by the statute. The subject ordinances – in providing for the punishment of red light violations – relate to matters “covered by” Chapter 316. Thus, the ordinances can be sustained as a valid exercise of municipal authority only if they are expressly authorized by statute.

The Court held, contrary to the arguments advanced by the municipalities, that section 316.008(1)(w)’s grant of authority for “regulating, restricting, or monitoring traffic by security devices” does not explicitly provide authority for local governments to adopt measures for the punishment of conduct that is already subject to punishment under Chapters 316 and 318. Thus, the Court held, the Orlando and Aventura ordinances are expressly preempted by state law.

The Court quashed the decision of the Third District in City of Aventura and approved the decision of the Fifth District in City of Orlando. Justice Pariente wrote a dissenting opinion, in which Justice Quince concurred.

Image courtesy of Flickr by Heather (no changes).